Preventing Zika Infection Where You Live
Zika is a virus that causes a mild infection in most people, but can lead to severe complications in some people. It may cause Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, leading to severe muscle weakness or paralysis, and rarely, death. And it can cause severe birth defects in an unborn baby if a pregnant woman has the virus. There is no vaccine to prevent Zika infection. If you live in an area with Zika, you can take important steps to protect yourself and your family.
What Causes Zika?
The Zika virus is mostly passed on by the bite of the mosquito species Aedes. Pregnant women who have it can also give it to their unborn child. It may also be transmitted through sexual contact and blood transfusion. But experts know so little about the virus that they are still learning all the ways it can be passed on.
What Are the Symptoms of Zika?
Most people infected with the Zika virus have no symptoms. For the 1 out of 5 people who do have symptoms, they are usually very mild. They last 5 to 7 days and then go away completely. They may include:
How Is Zika Treated?
There is no medicine to cure the Zika virus. Treatment is aimed at easing symptoms. Treatments include:
Fluids. Drinking lots of fluids will help you stay hydrated. Water and sports drinks are good choices. Avoid alcohol and drinks with caffeine.
Medicine. Acetaminophen can help ease fever and pain.
Rest. You may feel better more quickly if you get plenty of rest.
How Does Zika Spread?
The Zika virus spreads through mosquito bites and sexual activity. Pregnant women who have it can also give it to their unborn child. To prevent infection, you need to protect yourself from mosquitoes, and use protection during sexual activity.
Protection Around Your Home
Get rid of standing water in your yard. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water. Check pots and planters, outdoor kids’ toys, bird baths, and any other containers for puddles of water. Empty the water regularly and keep these areas clean and dry.
Use screens. Don’t leave windows or doors open unless they have screens. Patch any holes in the screens.
Use an indoor bug spray or fogger. You can kill mosquitoes at home. Pick a spray that has imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, tetramethrin, or cypermethrin. Use it as directed on the product label.
Protection When You Go Out
When you are outdoors:
Wear protective clothing. Wear clothing that covers your body to prevent mosquito bites. Choose clothing with long sleeves and long pant legs. Wear socks and shoes to cover your feet and ankles.
Apply a bug spray. Buy a skin spray that is EPA-approved and contains DEET, picaridin (also called KBR 3023, or icaridin), oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), para-menthane-diol (PMD), 2-undecanone, or IR3535. Make sure to follow the instructions on the label about how to apply and when to reapply. Use it during the day and at night. EPA-approved bug sprays are safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Don’t spray bug spray on skin under your clothing. When using both sunscreen and bug spray, apply the sunscreen first.
Use permethrin. This is a type of insecticide you can apply to fabrics. If you are going camping, treat your clothing, shoes, and your tent with permethrin. You can also buy gear that’s already treated. Don’t use permethrin directly on your skin.
To protect a child from mosquito bites:
Dress your child in protective clothes. Have your child wear clothes that cover his or her arms, legs, feet, and ankles.
Apply bug spray to your child’s skin. Don’t use it on babies younger than 2 months old. Don’t put it on a child’s hands, eyes, or mouth. Don’t use bug skin spray on a child under age 3 if the spray has oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD).
Use a mosquito net for your child. Put a mosquito net over the stroller and crib.
Protection During Sex
Make sure to use protection every time you have sexual activity. This includes vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and use of shared sex toys. Use condoms and dental dams. If your partner is pregnant, you may want to choose to not have sex during the pregnancy.
If You Have Symptoms of Zika
Contact your healthcare provider right away if you have symptoms of Zika. Symptoms may be mild and can include fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes, muscle aches, and headache. You may need a blood or urine test to check for the virus.